Tuesday, September 5, 2017

Food Crops News 291

Food Crops News
Food Crops News 291 Thông tin Cây Lương thực Toàn cầu tháng 9 năm 2017. Chuyên trang thu thập, tuyển chọn thông tin Cây Lương thực giùm bạn và giúp bạn luyện học tiếng Anh nông nghiệp chuyên ngành. Hãy kiên trì làm giàu kiến thức chính của bạn.

Cassava News

Africa's most notorious insects – the bugs that hit agriculture the hardest

September 4, 2017 by Esther Ndumi Ngumbi, The Conversation
Whiteflies - Africa’s main cassava pest causes damage to crops. Credit: Maurice/Flickr
The dreaded crop-eating fall armyworm continues to spread across Africa like wildfire. This invasive insect pest, first reported in Africa in early 2016, is in more than 20 African countries including South Sudan and South Africa. It has destroyed many staple crops like maize. Damage to maize alone by this pest could total USD$3 billion in the next 12 months.
Crop losses in African countries due to are estimated at 49% of the expected total crop yield each year, according to the Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International. But some can be even worse, and the effects of the changing climate are expected to increase the damage done by insects.
Which are Africa's top insect pests? The ones named here are just a few of the wide range of insect pests that affect crop production in Africa. But describing the top ones – and the crops they attack – can help focus the minds of researchers, governments and development agencies.
Insects that damage cereal crops
Cereals like maize, rice, wheat and sorghum are Africa's most important food crops. Maize is by far the most widely grown cereal crop – more than 300 million people out of approximately 1 billion people in sub-Saharan Africa depend on it as their main food source. Maize is severely affected by pests. The most significant yield losses are caused by lepidopteran stem borers, Busseola fusca (Fuller) and Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Crambidae).
Depending on the country, season, region and maize variety, Chilo partellus can cause (annual) yield losses ranging from 15% to 100%. Production losses of up to USD$450 million to farmers in eastern Africa by Chilo partellus have been reported.

Root and tuber crops

More than 240 million tons of root and tuber crops, including cassava, sweet potato, potato and yam, are annually produced on 23 million hectares of land in Africa. As many as 500 million to 1 billion Africans consume cassava. While the crop is tolerant of heat and other extremes, it's vulnerable to insect pests.
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is Africa's main cassava insect pest. Unlike the stem borers, which chew and bore through stems and new maize cobs, these whiteflies feed directly on plants' sap. They also carry cassava plant diseases.
The most important disease they transmit are the Cassava Mosaic virus and Cassava Brown Streak disease. Entire yield losses have been reported and annual economic losses in East and Central Africa have been estimated at US$ 1.9-2.7 billion dollars.
Cassava roots infected with Cassava Brown Streak Disease. Credit: IITA/Flickr
Legume crops
Legume crops, including cow peas and beans, are an important part of African diets. They provide protein, vitamins and minerals such as calcium and antioxidants. But the production of most legume is threatened by several insect pests including bean flies, aphids, thrips, leafhoppers, whitefly and leaf beetles.
The legume pod borer is a serious pest for cowpeas, a crop that is consumed by over 200 million Africans. Yield losses of up to 80% have been reported in Nigeria, Niger and Burkina Faso —- the three major cowpea producing countries.
Efforts at control
Because of insects' impact on food security, billions of dollars have gone into research aimed at finding effective control measures. The International Center of Insect Physiology, for example, dedicated over a decade of research in an effort to find ecologically sustainable controls for lepidopteran stem borers. The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture is developing crop varieties that are resistant to insect pests and the plant diseases they spread.
There are many more insects that affect African crop production. And minor pests can become a greater threat when weather conditions change or when they develop resistance to chemical pesticides used to control them.
Insects can spread into new areas because of trade and climate change. The resulting outbreaks can destabilise food security and the gains made in crop productivity. The emergence of the fall armyworm in Africa is an example of this.
Many invasive insect species can be controlled at early stages before they disperse to new environments. It requires better surveillance and monitoring by African countries.
This should include predictive modelling – a process that uses data mining and probability to forecast future outcomes. The process could help determine when the next insect invasions are likely to occur or predict the impact of a changing climate on the distribution of insect pests. It has already been used to help predict the impact of temperature changes on the future distributions of lepidopteran maize stem borers and their natural enemies.
Countries could then prepare to reduce the impact of insect invasions. Because insects know no borders, it is important for African countries to work together on combating pests.

Africa's most notorious insects – the bugs that hit agriculture the hardest

September 4, 2017 by Esther Ndumi Ngumbi, The Conversation
Whiteflies - Africa’s main cassava pest causes damage to crops. Credit: Maurice/Flickr
The dreaded crop-eating fall armyworm continues to spread across Africa like wildfire. This invasive insect pest, first reported in Africa in early 2016, is in more than 20 African countries including South Sudan and South Africa. It has destroyed many staple crops like maize. Damage to maize alone by this pest could total USD$3 billion in the next 12 months.
Crop losses in African countries due to are estimated at 49% of the expected total crop yield each year, according to the Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International. But some can be even worse, and the effects of the changing climate are expected to increase the damage done by insects.
Which are Africa's top insect pests? The ones named here are just a few of the wide range of insect pests that affect crop production in Africa. But describing the top ones – and the crops they attack – can help focus the minds of researchers, governments and development agencies.
Insects that damage cereal crops
Cereals like maize, rice, wheat and sorghum are Africa's most important food crops. Maize is by far the most widely grown cereal crop – more than 300 million people out of approximately 1 billion people in sub-Saharan Africa depend on it as their main food source. Maize is severely affected by pests. The most significant yield losses are caused by lepidopteran stem borers, Busseola fusca (Fuller) and Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Crambidae).
Depending on the country, season, region and maize variety, Chilo partellus can cause (annual) yield losses ranging from 15% to 100%. Production losses of up to USD$450 million to farmers in eastern Africa by Chilo partellus have been reported.
Root and tuber crops
More than 240 million tons of root and tuber crops, including cassava, sweet potato, potato and yam, are annually produced on 23 million hectares of land in Africa. As many as 500 million to 1 billion Africans consume cassava. While the crop is tolerant of heat and other extremes, it's vulnerable to insect pests.
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is Africa's main cassava insect pest. Unlike the stem borers, which chew and bore through stems and new maize cobs, these whiteflies feed directly on plants' sap. They also carry cassava plant diseases.
The most important disease they transmit are the Cassava Mosaic virus and Cassava Brown Streak disease. Entire yield losses have been reported and annual economic losses in East and Central Africa have been estimated at US$ 1.9-2.7 billion dollars.
Cassava roots infected with Cassava Brown Streak Disease. Credit: IITA/Flickr
Legume crops
Legume crops, including cow peas and beans, are an important part of African diets. They provide protein, vitamins and minerals such as calcium and antioxidants. But the production of most legume is threatened by several insect pests including bean flies, aphids, thrips, leafhoppers, whitefly and leaf beetles.
The legume pod borer is a serious pest for cowpeas, a crop that is consumed by over 200 million Africans. Yield losses of up to 80% have been reported in Nigeria, Niger and Burkina Faso —- the three major cowpea producing countries.
Efforts at control
Because of insects' impact on food security, billions of dollars have gone into research aimed at finding effective control measures. The International Center of Insect Physiology, for example, dedicated over a decade of research in an effort to find ecologically sustainable controls for lepidopteran stem borers. The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture is developing crop varieties that are resistant to insect pests and the plant diseases they spread.
There are many more insects that affect African crop production. And minor pests can become a greater threat when weather conditions change or when they develop resistance to chemical pesticides used to control them.
Insects can spread into new areas because of trade and climate change. The resulting outbreaks can destabilise food security and the gains made in crop productivity. The emergence of the fall armyworm in Africa is an example of this.
Many invasive insect species can be controlled at early stages before they disperse to new environments. It requires better surveillance and monitoring by African countries.
This should include predictive modelling – a process that uses data mining and probability to forecast future outcomes. The process could help determine when the next insect invasions are likely to occur or predict the impact of a changing climate on the distribution of insect pests. It has already been used to help predict the impact of temperature changes on the future distributions of lepidopteran maize stem borers and their natural enemies.
Countries could then prepare to reduce the impact of insect invasions. Because insects know no borders, it is important for African countries to work together on combating pests.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-09-africa-notorious-insects-bugs-agriculture.html#jCp
Africa's most notorious insects – the bugs that hit agriculture the ... - Phys.Org - Phys.Org *Africa's most notorious insects – the bugs that hit agriculture the ...* *Phys.Org* The dreaded crop-eating fall armyworm continues to spread ac...
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Hoàng Kim

Sunday, August 6, 2017

Food Crops News 290

Food Crops News
Food Crops News 290 Thông tin Cây Lương thực Toàn cầu tháng 8 năm 2017. Chuyên trang thu thập, tuyển chọn thông tin Cây Lương thực giùm bạn và giúp bạn luyện học tiếng Anh nông nghiệp chuyên ngành. Hãy kiên trì làm giàu kiến thức chính của bạn.
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Business Mirror Aug 1, 2017
ARMM cassava output rises on industrial demand
The Manila Times Aug 4, 2017

Expert urges focus on root, tuber crops
Guardian (blog) Jul 24, 2017

Putting the Boba Cancer Controversy to Rest
monroviaweekly Aug 2, 2017
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The Nation Newspaper Aug 4, 2017
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Cassava for biofueld

Designing coordination contract for biofuel supply chain in China

F Ye, Y Li, Q Yang - Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 2016 - Elsevier
... Thus, the limited production of biofuels in China cannot fill the gap between energy demand and
supply (Chen et al., 2016). ... Then in Section 5, we present an empirical application of the proposed
coordination contracts with data from the cassava-based biofuel industry in ...

Lignocellulosic bioethanol: A review and design conceptualization study of production from cassava peels

A Adekunle, V Orsat, V Raghavan - Renewable and Sustainable Energy …, 2016 - Elsevier
... Despite all the challenges associated with second generation biofuels such as cost of technology:
[17] and [18], environmental degradation: [19] and [20], biomass availability, limited flexible ... This
process [15] is the basis for the cassava peel biofuel plant conceptualized in ...

Impact of ecosystem carbon stock change on greenhouse gas emissions and carbon payback periods of cassava-based ethanol in Vietnam

TH Nguyen, S Williams, K Paustian - Biomass and Bioenergy, 2017 - Elsevier
... soil productivity due to soil erosion and high nutrient demand [7][8][9]. Although GHG mitigation
is not currently the main driving force for development of biofuels in Asia, the GHG footprint of
cassava-ethanol and potential negative impacts of cassava as a biofuel feedstock are a ...

Modeling of China's cassava-based bioethanol supply chain operation and coordination

F Ye, Y Li, Q Lin, Y Zhan - Energy, 2017 - Elsevier
... is viewed as an important and highly attractive nonedible feedstock for the production of biofuels. ...
is tested, and the results show that it can enhance the supply of cassava, increase the ... set out
for policy makers regarding how to promote the development of the biofuel industry, to ...

[HTML] Biomass resources and biofuels potential for the production of transportation fuels in Nigeria

J Ben-Iwo, V Manovic, P Longhurst - Renewable and Sustainable Energy …, 2016 - Elsevier
... In comparison to first- and second-generation feedstock for biofuel production, these microbial
cells are more sustainable because ... Third- and fourth generation biofuels [28 ... zone favours the
growth of low base saturation and low solar radiation crops such as cassava, rice, sweet ...

Preparation and characterization of cassava starch‐based adsorbents for separating of azeotropic ethanol‐water in biofuels ethanol production

H Li, Y Liu, X Gao, X Li - Journal of Chemical Technology and …, 2016 - Wiley Online Library
Background Dehydration of biomass-based fermentation product is an essential process in
the production of biofuels ethanol for industrial applications. Cassava starch, an adsorbent
with high efficiency, can be fermented after saturating with water, which overcomes the

Economy-wide implications of biofuel production in Zambia

F Hartley, DE van Seventer, P Samboko, C Arndt - 2017 - econstor.eu
... supportive set of bioenergy incentives provide a strong case for successful biofuel production
within ... Identified potential bioethanol crops, namely sugarcane and cassava, are also well
established in ... The establishment of a biofuels sector in Zambia has the potential to promote ...

The policy recommendations on cassava ethanol in China: Analyzed from the perspective of life cycle “2E&W”

T Zhang, X Xie, Z Huang - Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 2017 - Elsevier
... Cassava ethanol; Life cycle assessment; Water footprint; Energy consumption; GHG emissions. ...
disastrous consequences, including climate change; 3) the feedstock of biofuels are widely ...
Additionally, investments in biofuel production may create jobs and reduce poverty in rural ...

Freshwater use analysis of cassava for food feed fuel in the Mun River basin, Thailand

P Pingmuanglek, N Jakrawatana… - The International Journal …, 2017 - Springer
... base for food for local consumption and export as well as for feed and biofuels. ... Energy
Development Plan (AEDP 2015–2036) of Thailand has the goal to increase biofuel use to 25 ...
with total capacity of 12.5 mL/day, comprising of molasses ethanol plants, cassava ethanol plants ...

Energy and environmental assessments of bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia

M Hanif, TMI Mahlia, HB Aditiya… - Biofuel Research …, 2017 - biofueljournal.com
Abstract According to the Malaysia's biofuel policy, renewable fuels are crucial for energy
sustainability in the transportation sector in the future. This study was aimed to evaluate the
potential of bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia in terms of energy
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Cassava starch

Water desorption of cassava starch granules: A study based on thermogravimetric analysis of aqueous suspensions and humid powders

GA Valencia, M Djabourov, PJ do Amaral Sobral - Carbohydrate polymers, 2016 - Elsevier
Abstract This work reports on water desorption from cassava starch in relation with the
structure and conditioning of granules in suspensions or after equilibration in desiccators.
The experimental work is performed by thermogravimetric analysis with isothermal and non-

Optimization and modeling of biohydrogen production by mixed bacterial cultures from raw cassava starch

S Wang, Z Ma, T Zhang, M Bao, H Su - Frontiers of Chemical Science and …, 2017 - Springer
Abstract The production of bio-hydrogen from raw cassava starch via a mixed-culture dark
fermentation process was investigated. The production yield of H 2 was optimized by
adjusting the substrate concentration and the microorganism mixture ratio. A maximum H 2

Edible films based on cassava starch and fructooligosaccharides produced by Bacillus subtilis natto CCT 7712

GT Bersaneti, J Mantovan, A Magri, S Mali… - Carbohydrate …, 2016 - Elsevier
Abstract The objectives of this work were to produce fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) by using
the microorganism Bacillus subtilis natto CCT 7712 and to employ these FOSs as a
functional ingredient in cassava starch edible films, which were characterized according to

Thermoplastic cassava starch/sorbitol-modified montmorillonite nanocomposites blended with low density polyethylene: properties and biodegradability study

S Chuayjuljit, S Hosililak… - Journal of Metals, …, 2017 - ojs.materialsconnex.com
Abstract The objective of this research paper is to prepare environmentally friendly plastic
materials from biodegradable cassava starch, montmorillonite (MMT) and low density
polyethylene (LDPE). MMT was first modified by sorbitol via a solid state method. Results

Thermomechanical characterization of an amylose-free starch extracted from cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz)

AP Díaz, D Lourdin, G Della Valle, AF Quintero… - Carbohydrate …, 2017 - Elsevier
Abstract The aim of this study was to determine and compare the melting (T m), glass
transition (T g) and mechanical relaxation (T α) temperatures of a new waxy cassava starch.
Thermal transitions measurements were obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

Multivariate optimization of simple procedure for determination of Fe and Mg in cassava starch employing slurry sampling and FAAS

FAC Amorim, VC Costa, EGP da Silva… - Food Chemistry, 2017 - Elsevier
Abstract A slurry sampling procedure has been developed for Fe and Mg determination in
cassava starch using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimization step was
performed using a univariate methodology for 200 mg samples and a multivariate

Biodegradability and plasticizing effect of yerba mate extract on cassava starch edible films

CM Jaramillo, TJ Gutiérrez, S Goyanes, C Bernal… - Carbohydrate …, 2016 - Elsevier
Abstract Biodegradable and edible cassava starch-glycerol based films with different
concentrations of yerba mate extract (0, 5 and 20 wt.%) were prepared by casting. The
plasticizing effect of yerba mate extract when it was incorporated into the matrix as an

Edible cassava starch films carrying rosemary antioxidant extracts for potential use as active food packaging

D Piñeros-Hernandez, C Medina-Jaramillo… - Food …, 2017 - Elsevier
Abstract Polyphenols-rich rosemary extracts (RE) were successfully incorporated within
cassava starch films in order to produce active food packaging with antioxidant properties.
Films with similar thicknesses (about 200 μm) and water content (15–20%) were obtained

Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of gel produced from α-amylase-treated cassava starch granules

T Ichihara, J Fukuda, T Takaha, S Suzuki, Y Yuguchi… - Food …, 2016 - Elsevier
Abstract Cassava starch granules slightly hydrolyzed by α-amylase from Aspergillus niger
show significantly enhanced gelling properties (Ichihara, Fukuda, Takaha, Yuguchi, &
Kitamura, 2014). This paper investigates the mechanism of these enhanced gelling

High production yield and specific productivity of succinate from cassava starch by metabolically‐engineered Escherichia coli KJ122

K Khor, A Sawisit, S Chan… - Journal of Chemical …, 2016 - Wiley Online Library
BACKGROUND Succinate has been widely used in chemical industries and its microbial
production is a desirable option. The feasibility of bio-based succinate production on an
industrial scale strongly depends on the utilization of cheaper renewable resources. The use
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Cassava production

[HTML] Origins, production, and utilization of cassava in Burkina Faso, a contribution of a neglected crop to household food security

F Guira, K Some, D Kabore… - Food science & …, 2017 - Wiley Online Library
Abstract Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a food plant introduced in Africa from
America by the Portuguese in 1558. The objective of this study is to establish cassava
origins, production, and utilization in Burkina Faso. The investigation was carried out in the

Material flow management and cleaner production of cassava processing for future food, feed and fuel in Thailand

N Jakrawatana, P Pingmuangleka… - … of Cleaner Production, 2016 - Elsevier
Abstract This research applied Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA) to identify the costs of
material and energy loss, as well as the opportunity for technology improvement to increase
productivity in starch and ethanol productivity in Thailand. The results showed that ethanol

[PDF] PERCEPTION OF CASSAVA FARMERS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN IDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OYO STATE, NIGERIA …

AO Adepoju, EO Oyewo… - Current Research in …, 2017 - conscientiabeam.com
Contribution/Originality: This study documents that the cassava farmers labour used could
be capital intensive since majority of them used hired labour also decision to have a regular
or consistence contact with extension agent could enhance the farmers to acquire basic

The impact of mechanized processing of cassava on farmers' production efficiency in Uganda

A Abass, P Amaza, B Bachwenkizi… - Applied Economics …, 2017 - Taylor & Francis
ABSTRACT The study investigates the impact of adopting mechanized processing of
cassava on farmers' production efficiency in Uganda. A stochastic production function, using
translog functional form, was used to compare efficiency measures of farmers in mechanized

[PDF] Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Production Constraints, Farmers' Preference Criteria and Diversity Management in Togo

K Kombate, I Dossou-Aminon, A Dansi… - Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. …, 2017 - ijcmas.com
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(6): 3328-3340 ... Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Production
Constraints, Farmers' Preference Criteria and Diversity Management in Togo ... K. Kombate
1,2 , I. Dossou-Aminon 1,3 *, A. Dansi 1,3 , RA Adjatin 1,3 , GA Dassou 1,3 , K. ... Kpemoua 2

Intensification pathway for improvement of smallholder cassava production systems in Southern Côte d'Ivoire

JBG Gnahoua, DJB Ettien, B N'ZUÉ, C Ebah… - Experimental …, 2017 - cambridge.org
Abstract In order to intensify cassava production in southern Côte d'Ivoire, multiple farmers'
field trials were carried out in two important cassava-producing areas (Dabou and
Bingerville). The effectiveness of an Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) approach

[PDF] Profitability of Cassava-based Production Systems

AO Omotayo, AJ Oladejo - 2016 - krepublishers.com
ABSTRACT The study was undertaken to analyze the profitability of cassava-based production
in Oyo State. The population for the study consisted of all small-scale cassava farmers in the
State. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 120 randomly selected

A socio-scientific analysis of the environmental and health benefits as well as potential risks of cassava production and consumption

S Mombo, C Dumat, M Shahid, E Schreck - Environmental Science and …, 2016 - Springer
Abstract Due to its high adaptability, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the
world's most cultivated and consumed plants after maize and rice. However, there are
relatively few scientific studies on this important crop. The objective of this review was

Participatory appraisal of preferred traits, production constraints and postharvest challenges for cassava farmers in Rwanda

A Nduwumuremyi, R Melis, P Shanahan, T Asiimwe - Food Security, 2016 - Springer
Abstract Physiological postharvest deterioration (PPD) and late bulking are among the traits
that make cassava an unattractive crop in many environments. This study aimed at
assessing the main constraints of cassava production, the effects of late bulking, the losses

[PDF] Herbicide Adoption Could Greatly Increase Cassava Production in Africa

L Gianessi - Crop Life Foundation, 2016 - croplife.org
Cassava originated from tropical America and was first introduced into Africa around 1558. It
then spread rapidly and became a dietary staple in Africa. Cassava is rich in carbohydrates,
calcium, vitamins B and C and essential minerals. Cassava serves as a major staple food for
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Cassava plant

Mansa cassava plant opens
Zambia Daily Mail Jul 28, 2017
Ex-miner sets up Cassava plant
ZNBC Jul 29, 2017
CSIR sensitises farmers on mosaic virus disease
Ghana News Agency Aug 2, 2017
Coal miner's switch to innovative producer
Mackay Daily Mercury Jul 25, 2017
Why Yuca Should Love Cassava
HuffPost Jul 25, 2017
How virus resistance works in GMOs
Biofortified Blog Jul 30, 2017
Firm taps DA for cassava powder
Baguio Midland Courier Jul 26, 2017
BIG-DATA BOOST for farmers
The Nation Jul 30, 2017

Rice transforming its defense
Chron.com Aug 4, 2017
How to Make Perfect Rice Without a Rice Cooker
Lifehacker Australia Aug 4, 2017

rice paddy

PADDY Cakes
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Maize

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sweet potato

Ohio State Fair winning recipe: Sweet Potato Cake
The Columbus Dispatch Aug 1, 2017
Sweet Potato Nachos
The Daily Meal Jul 26, 2017
NRGene Delivers an Improved Sweet Potato Genome
PR Newswire (press release) Jul 27, 2017
July 2017 NPD: 3D chips, sweet potato snacks, paleo flour
BakeryAndSnacks.com Jul 27, 2017

food crops

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(*) The selection and placement of stories on this page were determined automatically by a computer program. The time or date displayed reflects when an article was added to or updated in Google News.



Hoàng Kim